Algorand addresses are derived from the account's original public key, appended with a checksum, and encoded in base 32:
NEAR Account IDs
NEAR account identifiers can be one of two types: human-readable and implicit.
Human-readable account IDs must be created by their immediate parent before they can be used. For example, the account identifier
app.example.near can only be created by
Implicit accounts may be used before they are created. (Or, they are created if/when they are used.) They work similarly to Algorand accounts in that the identifier of an implicit account is derived from the public key that controls the account.
Whereas NEAR accounts may have any number of differently-permissioned keys attached at any given time, Algorand accounts may only have one key at a time. However, an Algorand account may be rekeyed to allow another account to authorize transactions on its behalf. Rekeying revokes the account's original private key.
There are two types of Algorand smart contract: stateful and stateless. As the name implies, stateless smart contracts (also known as smart signatures) do not have access to permanent storage.
Stateful smart contracts have access to key-value stores which can store two data types: unsigned 64-bit integers and byteslices (variable-length byte strings). There are two types of data store: the global data store is always available to its associated contract, and the local data stores are associated with an account-contract combination (the only local stores accessible to a contract during a transaction are those specified in the transaction).
NEAR smart contracts only have a contract-global key-value storage location which is always accessible. No account-specific storage location exists; account-specific information must be stored in the global store.
Algorand smart contracts execute in the context of the Algorand Virtual Machine (AVM). The native code of the AVM is called the Transaction Execution Approval Language (TEAL), which is a stack-based, assembly-like programming language. Since Algorand smart contracts tend to be smaller than those on other chains, many projects simply write TEAL code by hand.
NEAR smart contracts run in a WebAssembly (WASM) virtual machine, meaning that any language with a WASM compile target could conceivably be used to write a smart contract for NEAR. Currently, Rust is the favored choice, especially since NEAR core is written in Rust as well.
Integration & Interoperability
There are no known interoperability solutions for Algorand-NEAR interaction at this time.